A design is a blueprint or technical specification for the precise construction of an actual object or structure or for the successful implementation of an act or procedure, or the end result of such a blueprint or technical specification in the shape of a finished product, machine or process. The word ‘design’ has other synonyms which are construction, blueprint, design, blueprint of the building and design of the building. The term design also refers to a particular form in art, like painting, sculpture and architecture.
In applied arts, the term design is used to describe the production of a specific object or objects according to a designer’s specifications. In applied design, the term design is used to refer to the designer’s conception of the output, and is then implemented by applying physical, chemical, technological and social principles. In applied design, as in applied arts, there is usually a relation between the designer and his/her client. In applied service design, however, there is no such relationship between the designer and his/her client.
In visual communication, the term design solution refers to the complete process by which a product or an interactive service is designed and produced. In visual communication, the term design solution may be used in conjunction with the term product design. Designing involves taking a product from its conceptualization to the actual design phase. In this process a number of important steps are taken, which are collectively referred to as design phases.
The term rational model refers to the initial set of design goals or objectives and their relationships to the existing real world circumstances. In designing, it is necessary to develop a set of rational model assumptions and corresponding modeling assumptions. Rational model assumptions help in rationalizing the design process and in deciding what specifications should be included and which should be excluded in the final design. They also help in determining the various constraints that have to be taken into account in the design process. In engineering design, the term rational model refers to the actual design solutions obtained from the rational model assumptions. This process is called model building.
The term action-oriented perspective is used to describe a design process in which the designer considers the situation from an action-centric perspective. An action-oriented perspective focuses on the needs of the users of the product. The action-oriented perspective in design therefore deals more with the needs of humans and their interaction with the product than with the requirements of the technical user. Action-oriented designers therefore deal with needs of humans and their interaction with technology.
Graphic design refers to the output of designers or the designers themselves. The term graphic design therefore refers to output that is produced by designers using certain methods. The output is then converted into copies for distribution. A graphic design activity is an output or a product of a specific designer. Other types of graphic design activities include advertising designs, logo design activity, web graphic design, illustration activity and many other design activities.